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Get to Know Us. The data from this survey indicate that male teachers predominate The subjects in which they had graduated were: social sciences Among 62 interviewees with a master's degree, Among the 54 respondents with a doctorate: It was observed that The present paper has the limitation that it was produced using secondary data from publications available in indexed periodicals in Brazil and the United Kingdom, along with material available on the internet.

A discussion from this type of material will certainly have the possibility of bias in its analysis. Nonetheless, we believe that the reflections presented here have achieved a historical update of the debate on the teaching of the social sciences to health professionals, in addition to making comparisons between Brazilian and British realities. In a general manner, there has been growth in the health-related social and human sciences in both countries, with great similarities in how their experiences have developed.

However, few new questions have arisen over these three-and-a-half decades. Back in the s, the following difficulties regarding the development of health-related social sciences were indicated: the structure and focus of the healthcare system; the power structure within medical schools; the medical student culture; and the influence of social scientists. The structure and focus of the healthcare system add extra difficulty for social scientists working in the healthcare field, especially in relation to: requests for work within a short space of time in order to supply rapid responses for immediate application; large quantities of course planning, preparation and administration work; large numbers of students, thereby making social approaches to health problems difficult; thematic diversity; difficulty in developing a minimum curriculum for courses; and assessment methods.

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With regard to the power structure within medical schools, it can be seen that one of the persistent difficulties within both of the situations investigated is the shortage of human resources with training in social sciences. In the s, Candeias observed that this shortage created unfavorable working conditions, in that it did not allow the formation of a balanced team of specialists.

In , in the United Kingdom, the same conclusion was reached through the following reflection:. With regard to difficulties with the medical student culture, some of the resistance among these students reproduces what is expressed by the leaders and opinion-formers within the medical school, while another part of it comes from the fact that:. In relation to the barriers placed by social scientists, there have been important changes.

According to Candeias, 4 in the s, "[it was] not rare to find literate lay people and even social scientists with specializations in other subjects openly opposing affirmations for which the evidence came from very rigorous sociological investigations". However, it is seen today that there is now a generation of social scientists lecturing in health-related schools, with full training in postgraduate programs of medical and public health schools, under the supervision of social scientists.

It is also observed that social and human scientists have taken positions in non-academic institutions, such as in the management of the Brazilian health system SUS and in relation to production of specific policies for humanization, social control and social inclusion. Both in Brazil and in Great Britain, it can be seen that the habitus of social and human science agents within the healthcare field is formed by idiosyncrasies such as: the relative youth of this teaching in undergraduate courses, since five decades is not a long time compared with the thousands of years of medical tradition; continual criticism within and between the theories, which is different from the doubts put forward as the principle of scientific experimentation, since there are many hypotheses without theoretical reflection; the relationship with the written word, which gives rise to the use of long and detailed texts to express the complexity of multicausal analyses.

Because of these characteristics, it is seen that different approaches are developed. One result from this is, for example, that words like reality and truth are used transitionally, given the recognition of the historical perspective in constructing "normality". Thus, it is observed that different socialization processes generate different values and symbols and that exercising social and human science techniques consists of analysis and synthesis in slow and deep slices of theoretical-conceptual knowledge.

On the other hand, although the healthcare field is also analyzed through the written word, its most important technique requirement is of a pragmatic and immediate nature, almost within the dimension of positivist thinking. Thus, the technical capital elaborated from these two approaches is recognizably different but may be complementary.

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However, in a field in which concrete images that "are worth a thousand words" have been taken to be part of the foundation, those who produce abstract images achieve lower yield through their actions. Nevertheless, within the healthcare field, there has been recognition of the need for differences in the training for professionals, in order to reflect greater support from the point of view of legality, even though from the point of view of legitimacy, the difficulties are still notable.

The statements of British professors certainly find an echo within the Brazilian field, since they affirm that the orientation of the course is almost exclusively biomedical, thereby creating a hierarchy of knowledge and making room for doubts such as: " when critical social science clashes with biomedical sciences, is this controversy going to assist deep-reflexive learning or simply going to create more confusions? Finally, although social and human science professionals have achieved entry socially into the healthcare field, differences and difficulties still persist.

It is possible that these differences will never be resolved and, to a certain extent, it is not expected that they will be, since it is fundamental to recognize the differentness in healthcare work. This makes it possible to have an expanded perspective of a paradigm of healthcare in which professionals and patients interact with their biological, social, psychological and spiritual knowledge.

From the updates presented in this study, it can be stated that there has been expansion between the social and human sciences and healthcare.

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Sociology for pharmacists : an introduction

Furthermore, the interaction between these two fields of knowledge has created zones of contact and intersection, thus resulting in important scientific production and additions within the spheres of teaching and services over the last few decades. Candeias 4 stated in that the training of social science specialists in healthcare had already gone beyond the field of improvisation and amateurism. Today, there is certainly even greater positivity regarding the training of these specialists. There are now sufficient elements to constitute this profession as a form of sociology, with its professionalization process.

As shown by British researchers, there is certainly still a notion of "us and them" in the healthcare field. However, the space available for treating the social and human sciences as anti-medicine disciplines has become smaller; or the space for stating, as the head of a clinical department in the United States did, in , " it is dangerous to let sociologists into medical schools Baume F.


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The new public health: an Australian perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Overcoming barriers to teaching the behavioral and social sciences to medical students. Acad Med. DOI: Rev Saude Publica. Candeias N. Sociologia e medicina. A theoretical proposal for the relationship between context and disease.

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Sociol Health Illness. Martins A. Cad Saude Coletiva.

An introduction to the discipline of Sociology

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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract This article, the second in a series highlighting the relevance of sociological theory to pharmacy practice, provides an introduction to functionalist sociology through a discussion of the work of the influential sociologist Talcott Parsons.

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