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Transnational crimes are crimes often committed with financial profit in mind, international crime includes crimes such as human rights abuses, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, etc… And while transnational crime is crime carried out across two or more international borders, international crime can take place within the borders of one state Albanese, , and in fact, it often does. These criminal organizations often looking a lot like how non-criminal organizations, and particularly businesses run.

For example, like legitimate businesses, criminal organizations often have the same sort of hierarchical leadership structure, and they also concern themselves with things such as product and technological innovations, as well as trying to reduce the level of risk in conducting their business. So, we have to understand how these criminal organizations operate, and more specifically, what are the ways in which they are trying to increase their profit margins, all the while in competition with other criminal organizations who are working in the same criminal activities.

There are many different types of transnational crime in the international system. We have listed a number of different types of global crime that takes place across state borders. Just some of the types of transnational crime are drug trafficking, kidnapping, human trafficking, human slavery, counterfeit goods, goods smuggling, piracy, cyber-attacks, trading in stolen art, the trading of exotic animals, and other criminal activities. Jay Albanese explains that there are three key objectives with regards to why individuals carry out transnational crime.

And often, transnational crime is viewed as a form of organized crime, since many of the crimes are committed by more than one individual Albanese, And when looking at the issue of transnational crime in the world, it seems that one of the main findings in the literature is that these transnational criminal organizations are often the ones who have created and continue to control the various trade paths that exist Haken, The reason for this is that profits from transnational crime and illicit markets are funneled mainly to the transnational crime syndicates who establish and maintain vast trade networks.

However, in many cases, these criminal organizations—in order to conduct their businesses—are reliant on several other criminal groups, whether it is with regards to the delivery of a product, or assistance in shipping a product. However, there is often a level of distrust between groups, often because of a fear of the motivations and intentions of the other groups. However, the cooperation between different criminal organizations is often not the only factor that allows for these groups to carry out their illegal criminal activity.

How Globalization Affects Transnational Crime

For example, these criminal organizations often work in areas—and are able to exploit—the increased reduction of borders due to globalization. As the international community becomes more economically and socially connected, these groups have more opportunities to sell their product to more and more people who may want said goods. In addition, they work with individuals who may not be seeing the benefits of globalization, or in fact, may have had their livelihoods negatively affected by new globalization currents.

As the world is becoming more technologically connected with one another, the need for criminals be in specific location for crime is not needed; they are able to operate throughout the world, particularly if their crimes involve activity through the internet, which can allow them to move much more freely, and without a reliance on a particular space or location. There are many reasons that criminal organizations still often congregate in cities, even given the increased ability to commit crime through non-specified locations of the internet.

Despite some attempts to promote interstate cooperation against human smuggling and trafficking, the issue has continued to cause political problems among the Southeast Asian states, especially since the financial crisis of This has limited bilateral and multilateral collaboration against human smuggling and trafficking.

The lack of political unity among the Southeast Asian States on this issue results from the sensitivity of the illegal migration question and the bilateral tensions that it creates. Founded in , the IMB defines piracy as:. The problem of piracy in Southeast Asia is a threat to regional and the international economic security.

The free and safe navigation of commercial vessels in Southeast Asia is an essential for international trade. The risk of piracy in the region has already led to high economic cost reflected by the loss of merchandise and ships and the increased insurance premium added to a number of cargoes that pass through the Malacca Strait, which ply km-long miles sea line and with to ships crossing the Strait daily [19].

Additionally, it has become the most important route of transport for oil from the Middle East to oil markets in East Asia. Moreover, a piracy attack on an oil super tanker crossing the Strait could lead to an environmental disaster to massive proportions. In recent years, coordinated patrols by Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, along with increased security on vessels have sparked a dramatic downturn in piracy.

International and Transnational Criminal Law Seminar in The Hague

According to IMB reported that worldwide pirate attacks fell for the third year in a row in Attacks on ships at sea in fell to vessels, down from in The same trend echoed in the Strait of Malacca where attacks dropped from 79 in to 50 in In , the three countries in the region, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore increased the patrol on the strait in an attempt to curb piracy. While Singapore wants international supports in this effort, Indonesia and Malaysia opposed to foreign intervention [21].

Corruption Southeast Asia is distinctive in many ways, and this no different with respect to much studied subject of corruption [22]. Indonesia and Thailand have also ranked among the faster-growing economies in the word in the past, as they still are today. Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand have all recently democratized. There may have been some increase in corruption following democratization with some changes in its perpetrators and beneficiaries. By some indices, in the s all three countries even fell from being less to being more corrupt than China. The least democratic of the five market economy countries, Malaysia and Singapore, are also ranked as the least corrupt.

All these countries have experienced economic liberalization, the reduction of trade and investment barriers, and less government intervention in the economy which is supposed to reduce corruption because business no longer needs to pay bribes to be allowed to conduct their business.

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Yet despite this, there has been no discernible fall in corruption. Money Laundering Money laundering is a financial crime, with no boundary of states, considering that the crime proceeds are often laundered and hidden in foreign countries [23]. The IMF [24] estimates the present scale of global money laundering transactions to be 2 to 5 percent of global Gross Domestic Product GDP and that the impact of money laundering is large enough that it must be taken into account by macroeconomic policy makers. Its Forty Recommendations define the state task in providing a functional yet transparent financial system.

According to the APG, the primary sources of criminal proceed in regions were identified as trafficking in illicit drugs and human beings, gambling, and the activities of organized crime groups. Some others identified source included kidnapping, arm smuggling, hijacking, extortion, corruption, tax evasion, and terrorism [25]. Yet, terrorism is purely a crime against national and international law [26].

Histories of Transnational Crime | SpringerLink

According to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism [28] , define terrorism as:. Furthermore, the United Nation UN come to recognize that terrorism destroys the human rights of the people to be free in life, and free from fear, since Human Rights presuppose recognition of the dignity and values of human beings. UN Resolution [29] condemn all acts of terrorism and incitement to commit a terrorist act or acts irrespective of theirs motivation, whenever and by whomsoever committed.

The other world shaking tragedies in Terrorism are the Bali, Madrid, and Jakarta tragedies.

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Act of small scale of terrorism and conflicts occur in various countries around the world continuously. However, the international community calls for fighting them mutually, respecting the Human Rights principle in advance.


  • Hyder Baksh Jatoi 1901 - 1970: Introduction And Excerpts From His Writings?
  • Other Subject Areas.
  • Transnational Crime.

To facilitate combating the transnational crime in international rank, the significant advancements in the field of the mutual legal cooperation came with the adoption by the General Assembly of the United Nations of the Model Treaty on Mutual Assistance [30]. This instrument now has over signatory states.

Under this article state parties to the Convention can seek and provide a broad range of assistance in evidence gathering. Article 18 which develop on the basis of the Drug Convention provisions on mutual assistance, contain 30 clauses providing for an elaborate and modern scheme for mutual assistance among state parties. The Convention [31] also mentioned Mutual Legal Assistance as an International Regime on fighting transnational crime, particularly in corruption issue.

Because of the word wide of the corruption problems are a large amount of ill gotten money are now kept in bank account, most of them in the developed country.

The Conference have discussed four main agenda namely mechanism of reviewing the convention returning ill gotten assets, technical cooperation, and corruption committed by public officials [35]. In the context to recognize deeper backgrounds why the states complies with the international treaty theoretically, there are some grounds persuade it.

Transnational organized crime

Three paradigms may be distinguished: the classical, the non hierarchic network, and individualist [36]. Other governments may use leverage to pressure countries into compliance. The Mara Salvatrucha gang, also known as the MS, is a prime example of how a small gang can rapidly evolve into one of the most notorious international criminal networks.

The gang promotes its interests through murder, kidnapping, blackmail, extortion, and assassination and has made the leap from localized crime to transnational drug and weapons trafficking. The U.

Here they coordinated international responses to trafficking, corruption, terrorism, and other organized crime, with the goal of ultimately bringing down criminal networks.